Hypochlorous acid (HClO) - Chemicals

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Hypochlorous acid (HClO)

Hypochlorous acid (HClO) pharmaceutical grade - sterilized >99.99+% min. (raw virgin matter, extra pure, selected)
prices F.O.B. Italy  =
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Hypochlorous acid (HClO) pharmaceutical  grade - sterilized
Hydrogen hypochlorite
Chlorine hydroxide
chloric(I) acid
chloranol
hydroxidochlorine
100% made in European Union *(according to USP, EUP, Echa-Reach)
>99.99+% (raw virgin matter, extra pure, selected)
tech. / laboratory chemicals / phama / organic synthesis / medical surgical disinfectant
EE1519
7790-92-3
232-232-5
HOCl
CHEBI : 24757
22757
100.029.302
24341
712K4CDC10
DTXSID3036737 (EPA)
54.46 g/mol
variable
7.53
≤20ppm
hypochlorite
soluble in water
>99.99%
colorless
aqueous solution
corrosive, oxidizing agent
special for chemical transport (according to IATA / ADR / ECHA-REACH rules / int.l laws)
COA, MSDS, GMP, US/EUP, Echa-Reach, etc... *

*
(originals will be delivered with good , and copies after confirmed order )
the price of the product is already around 25% less than the official price of the
International Chemical Stock Exchange / ICIS
Hypochlorous acid
(HClO) is a weak acid that forms when chlorine dissolves in water and itself
partially dissociates, forming hypochlorite, ClO-. HClO and ClO- are oxidizers, and the primary
disinfection agents of chlorine solutions. HClO cannot be  isolated from these solutions due to
rapid equilibration with its precursor. Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO)  and calcium  hypochlorite
(Ca(ClO)2) , are bleaches , deodorants , and disinfectants.
- In organic synthesis, HClO converts alkenes to chlorohydrins .
- In biology Hypochlorous Acid  is generated  in activated  neutrophils by  myeloperoxidase -
 mediated peroxidation of chloride ions, and contributes to the destruction of bacteria .
- In the cosmetics industry it is used on the skin ; it is also used in baby products .
- In food service and water distribution , specialized  equipment  to generate weak solutions
 of HClO from water and salt is  sometimes  used to generate  adequate quantities  of  safe
 (unstable) disinfectant to treat food preparation surfaces and water supplies .
- In  water  treatment ,  Hypochlorous  Acid  is  the  active  sanitizer  in  Hypochlorite-based
 products  (e.g. used in swimming pools) .
- Similarly in ships and yachts marine sanitation devices use electricity to convert seawater in
x
hypochlorous acid to disinfect macerated faecal waste before discharge into the sea .
- Hypochlorous acid has been investigated as a possible wound care agent and of early 2016
x
U.S. - Food and Drug Administration has approved products whose main active ingredient
 is hypochlorous acid for use in treating wounds and various infections in humans and pets .
 It is also FDA-approved as a preservative for saline solutions.
- In recent study a saline hygiene solution preserved with pure hypochlorous acid was shown
 to reduce  bacterial load  significantly without altering the bacterial diversity species on the
x
eyelids ; after 20 minutes of treatment there was 99% reduction of Staphylococci bacteria .
Addition of chlorine to water gives both hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl):
Cl2 + H2O ⇌ HClO + HCl
Cl2 + 4 OH− ⇌ 2 ClO− + 2 H2O + 2 e−
Cl2 + 2 e− ⇌ 2 Cl−
When acids are  added to aqueous salts of hypochlorous acid (such as sodium hypochlorite in
commercial bleach solution) resultant reaction is driven to the left and chlorine gas is formed.
Thus, the formation of stable hypochlorite bleaches is facilitated by dissolving chlorine gas in
basic water  solutions , such as  sodium  hydroxide ; the  acid can be  prepared by dissolving
dichlorine monoxide in water ; under standard aqueous conditions , anhydrous Hypochlorous
acid is currently impossible  to  prepare due  to the readily reversible  equilibrium between it
and it is anhydride :
2 HOCl ⇌ Cl2O + H2O      K (at 0 °C) = 3.55×10−3 dm3 mol−1
The presence of light or transition metal oxides of  copper, nickel , or cobalt accelerates the
exothermic decomposition into hydrochloric acid and oxygen :
2 Cl2 + 2 H2O → 4 HCl + O2
In aqueous solution, hypochlorous acid partially dissociates into the anion hypochlorite ClO−:
HClO ⇌ ClO− + H+
Salts of hypochlorous acid are called hypochlorites. One of the best-known hypochlorites is
NaClO, the active ingredient in bleach .
HClO is a stronger oxidant than chlorine under standard conditions .
2 HClO(aq) + 2  H+ + 2  e− ⇌ Cl2(g) + 2 H
2O      E = +1.63 V
HClO reacts with HCl to form chlorine gas:
HClO + HCl → H2O + Cl2
HClO reacts with amines to form chloramines and water. Reacting with ammonia:
NH3 + HClO → NH2Cl + H2O
HClO can also react with organic amines, forming N-chloroamines .
Hypochlorous acid reacts with a wide variety of biomolecules, including DNA, RNA, fatty acid
groups, cholesterol , and proteins .
- reaction with protein sulfhydryl groups
:
Sulfhydryl groups , Knox et al. first noted that HClO is a sulfhydryl inhibitor that, in sufficient
quantity, could completely inactivate proteins containing sulfhydryl groups. This is because
HClO oxidises sulfhydryl groups leading to the formation of disulfide bonds that can result in
crosslinking of proteins . The  HClO mechanism of  sulfhydryl oxidation  is similar  to that of
chloramine, and may only be bacteriostatic, because once the residual chlorine is dissipated,
some sulfhydryl function can be restored; one sulfhydryl-containing amino acid can scavenge
up  4 molecules of HOCl; consistent with this, it has been proposed that sulfhydryl groups of
sulfur-containing amino acids can be oxidized a total of three times by three HClO molecules,
with the fourth reacting with the α-amino group; the first reaction yields sulfenic acid
(R-SOH)
then sulfinic acid (R-SO2H) and finally R-SO3H . Sulfenic  acids  form  disulfides with another
protein sulfhydryl group, causing cross-linking and aggregation of proteins . Sulfinic acid and
R-SO3H derivatives  are produced  only at high molar  excesses of HClO , and disulfides  are
formed primarily at bacteriocidal levels . Disulfide bonds  can also  be oxidized  by  HClO  to
sulfinic acid . Because the oxidation of sulfhydryls and disulfides evolves hydrochloric acid ,
this process results in the depletion HClO .
- reaction with protein amino groups
:
Hypochlorous acid reacts readily with amino acids that have amino group side-chains , with
chlorine from HClO displacing a  hydrogen , resulting in an organic chloramine . Chlorinated
amino acids rapidly decompose , but protein chloramines are  longer-lived, and retain some
oxidative capacity.
Thomas et al. concluded from their results that most organic chloramines
decayed by internal rearrangement and that fewer available
NH2 groups promoted attack on
the peptide bond resulting in cleavage of the protein.
McKenna and Davies found that 10 mM
or greater HClO is necessary to fragment proteins in vivo . Consistent with these results , it
was later proposed that the chloramine  undergoes a  molecular  rearrangement , releasing
HCl and ammonia to form an amide. The amide group can further react with another amino
group to form a Schiff base, causing cross-linking and aggregation of proteins.
- reaction with DNA and nucleotides
:
Hypochlorous acid reacts slowly with
DNA and RNA as well as all nucleotides in vitro. GMP is
the most reactive because HClO reacts with both the heterocyclic  NH group and  the amino
group . In similar manner, TMP with only a heterocyclic NH group that is reactive with HClO
is the second-most reactive. AMP and CMP, which have only a slowly reactive amino group,
are less reactive with HClO. UMP has been reported to be reactive only at a very slow rate.
The heterocyclic  NH groups  are more reactive than amino  groups , and  their  secondary
chloramines are able to donate the chlorine. These reactions likely interfere with DNA base
pairing, and consistent with this, Prütz has reported a decrease in viscosity of DNA exposed
to HClO similar to that seen with heat denaturation; the sugar moieties are nonreactive and
the DNA backbone is not broken. NADH can react with chlorinated TMP and UMP as well as
HClO. This reaction can regenerate UMP and TMP and results in the 5-hydroxy derivative of
NADH . The reaction  with TMP or UMP  is slowly  reversible to regenerate HClO . A second
slower reaction that results in cleavage of the  pyridine  ring occurs  when  excess  HClO is
present. NAD+ is inert to HClO .
- Reaction with lipids
:
Hypochlorous acid reacts with unsaturated bonds in lipids, but not saturated bonds, and the
ClO-ion does not participate in this reaction. This reaction occurs by hydrolysis with addition
of chlorine to one of the carbons and a  hydroxyl to the other . The resulting compound is a
chlorhydrin. The polar chlorine disrupts lipid bilayers and could increase permeability. When
chlorhydrin  formation  occurs  in  lipid  bilayers of  red blood cells , increased  permeability
occurs. Disruption could occur if enough chlorhydrin is formed . The addition of  preformed
chlorhydrins to red blood cells can affect permeability as well. Cholesterol chlorhydrins have
also been observed , but do not greatly affect permeability , and it  is  believed that  Cl2  is
responsible for this reaction .
Escherichia coli exposed to hypochlorous acid lose viability in less than 0.1 seconds  due  to
many vital system inactivations.
Hypochlorous acid has a reported LD50 of 0.0104-0.156 ppm
and 2.6 ppm  caused 100%  growth inhibition  in  5 minutes . However , the  concentration
required for bactericidal activity is also highly dependent on bacterial concentration .
- inhibition of glucose oxidation
:
In 1948, Knox et al.  proposed the idea that inhibition of glucose oxidation is a major factor
in bacteriocidal nature of chlorine solutions . He proposed  that  the active  agent or agents
diffuse across the cytoplasmic membrane to inactivate key sulfhydryl-containing enzymes in
the glycolytic pathway. This group was also the first to note that chlorine  solutions  (HOCl)
inhibit sulfhydryl enzymes; later studies have shown that, at bacteriocidal levels the cytosol
components do not react with HOCl . In agreement with this , McFeters and  Camper found
that aldolase, an enzyme that Knox et al. proposes would be inactivated, was unaffected by
HOCl in vivo. It  has  been  further  shown  that  loss  of sulfhydryls does not correlate with
inactivation; that leaves the question concerning what causes inhibition of glucose oxidation.
The discovery that
HOCl blocks induction of β-galactosidase by added lactose led to a possible
answer to this question . The uptake of radiolabeled substrates by both  ATP hydrolysis and
proton co-transport may be blocked by exposure to  HOCl  preceding loss of viability . From
this observation , it proposed that HOCl blocks uptake of nutrients by inactivating transport
proteins . The question of loss of  glucose oxidation  has been further explored  in terms of
loss of respiration. Venkobachar et al.  found that succinic dehydrogenase was inhibited in
vitro by HOCl , which  led to the investigation of the possibility  that  disruption  of electron
transport could be the cause of bacterial inactivation. Albrich et al. subsequently found that
HOCl destroys cytochromes and iron-sulfur clusters  and  observed  that  oxygen  uptake is
abolished by HOCl and adenine nucleotides are lost . It  was also observed that irreversible
oxidation of cytochromes paralleled the loss of respiratory activity . One way of addressing
the loss of oxygen uptake was by studying the  effects  of  HOCl  on  succinate-dependent
electron transport.
Rosen et al. found that levels of reductable cytochromes in HOCl treated
cells were normal, and these cells were unable to reduce them . Succinate dehydrogenase
was also inhibited by HOCl stopping the flow of electrons to oxygen; later studies revealed
that Ubiquinol oxidase activity ceases first , and  the  still-active  cytochromes  reduce  the
remaining quinone the cytochromes then pass the electrons to oxygen which explains why
cytochromes cannot be reoxidized as observed by Rosen et al. However this line of inquiry
was ended when
Albrich et al. found that cellular inactivation precedes loss of respiration by
using  flow mixing system that allowed evaluation of viability on much smaller time scales.
This group found that cells capable of respiring could not divide after exposure to HOCl.
- inhibition of DNA replication
:
recently it has been
proposed that bacterial inactivation by HOCl is the result of inhibition of
DNA replication. When bacteria are exposed to HOCl, there is a precipitous decline in DNA
synthesis that precedes inhibition of protein synthesis, and closely parallels loss of viability.
During bacterial genome replication, the origin of replication
(oriC in E. coli) binds to proteins
that  are  associated  with the  cell  membrane , and  it was observed that HOCl treatment
decreases  the  affinity of extracted
membranes for oriC , and this decreased  affinity  also
parallels loss of viability a study by
Rosen et al. compared the rate of HOCl inhibition of DNA
replication of  plasmids  with different  replication  origins and found that certain plasmids
exhibited  a delay in inhibition of  replication when compared to plasmids  containing
oriC.
Rosen’s group
proposed that inactivation of membrane proteins involved in DNA replication
are the mechanism of action of HOCl.
- Depletion of adenine nucleotides
:
Having eliminated loss of respiration,
Albrich et al. proposes that the cause of death may be
due to metabolic dysfunction caused  by  depletion of adenine  nucleotides . Barrette et al.
studied  the loss  of
 adenine  nucleotides by studying the energy charge of HOCl-exposed
cells and found that
cells exposed to HOCl were unable to step up their energy charge after
addition of nutrients;
the conclusion was that exposed cells have lost the ability to regulate
their adenylate pool, based on the fact that
metabolite uptake was only 45% deficient after
exposure to HOCl and the observation that HOCl causes intracellular
ATP hydrolysis. It was
also confirmed that at bacteriocidal levels of
HOCl, cytosolic components are unaffected; so
So it was proposed that modification of some membrane-bound protein results in extensive
ATP hydrolysis , and this , coupled with the cells inability to remove AMP from the cytosol ,
depresses metabolic function. One protein involved in loss of ability to regenerate ATP has
been found to  be  ATP synthetase . Much of  this  research on  respiration reconfirms  the
observation that relevant bacteriocidal reactions take place at the cell membrane .
- Protein unfolding and aggregation
:
HOCl is known to cause post-translational modifications to proteins, the notable ones being
cysteine and methionine oxidation; a recent examination of
HOCl's bactericidal role revealed
it to be a potent inducer of protein aggregation. Hsp33, a chaperone known to be activated
by oxidative heat stress, protects bacteria from the effects of HOCl by acting as a holdase ,
effectively preventing protein aggregation . Strains  of  Escherichia  coli and Vibrio cholerae
lacking Hsp33 were rendered especially sensitive to HOCl . Hsp33 protected many essential
proteins from aggregation and  inactivation due  to  HOCl , which is a probable mediator of
HOCl's bactericidal effects .
hypochlorites are the salts of hypochlorous acid ; commercially important hypochlorites are
calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite.
- Production of hypochlorites using electrolysis
:
solutions of hypochlorites can be produced by electrolysis of an aqueous chloride solution ;
the composition of
resulting solution depends on the pH at the anode in acid conditions the
solution produced  will have a high  hypochlorous acid concentration , but will also contain
dissolved gaseous chlorine, which can be corrosive, at a neutral pH the solution will be +/-
75% hypochlorous acid and  25% hypochlorite . Some of the  chlorine gas  produced  will
dissolve forming hypochlorite ions. Hypochlorites also produced by the disproportionation
of chlorine gas in alkaline solutions.
HOCl is a strong oxidising agent.


Hypochlorous acid (HCIO) *€ 12 / liter

price F.O.B. Italy lot for 1000 liters

€ 12.000,00 Add

Hypochlorous acid (HClO) *€ 9 / liter

price F.O.B. Italy lot for 5000 liters

€ 45.000,00 Add

Hypochlorous acid (HClO) *€ 6 / liter

price F.O.B. Italy lot for 15000 liters

€ 90.000,00 Add

Hypochlorous acid (HCIO) *€ 4 / liter

price F.O.B. Italy for lot of 22000 liters

€ 88.000,00 Add
 
 
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